Jain, A., Marxhall, J., Buikema, A., Bancroft, T., Kelly, J., Newschaffer, C. (2015). Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 313(15). doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3077.
Theoharides, T., Konstantinos-Dionysios, A., Asimenia, A., Danae-Anastasia, D., Nikolaos, S., . . . & Kalogeromitros, D. (2012). Mast cells and inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443910002929
Recent findings also indicate that mast cells have immunomodulatory properties. Understanding selective release of mediators could explain how mast cells participate in numerous diverse biologic processes, and how they exert both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive actions. Unraveling selective mast cell secretion could also help develop unique mast cell inhibitors with novel therapeutic applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mast cells in inflammation.
The emerging field of vaccine adverse event immunogenetics.
Individuals diagnosed with autism “fall off a cliff” regarding covered therapy once they hit age caps that typically are set to 21 (Andrews, 2014). Federal organizations and some state mandates require insurers, Children’s Health Insurance Programs, and Medicaid to cover autism therapies until the age of 21. Six states do not have age caps, which include New York, California, Massachusetts, the District of Columbia, Wisconsin, and Indiana (Andrews, 2014). It is argued that setting age caps on mental health services is setting a quantitative limit, such as dollar caps on benefits (Andrews, 2014). The federal mental health parity law restricts insurers from imposing quantitative or qualitative; therefore, the age caps could be overturned on appeal (Andrews, 2014).
In 1990, the National Children’s Study (NCS) was formulated than authorized by the Children’s Health Act of 2000. It was inspired by the Framingham Heart Study, which was a prospective, longitudinal birth-cohort analysis. The NCS intended to be a 21-year prospective longitudinal study of 100,000 children to predict and develop strategies to combat asthma, autism, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, obesity, diabetes, dyslexia, and birth defects (Gillespie, 2014; National Institutes of Health [NIH], n.d.). The study design was focused on environmental exposures during the prenatal period through childhood, with the collection of genetic and epigenetic information (NIH, n.d.). In 2007, the Vanguard Study launched, which was a pilot study for the NCS, enrolling 5,000 children in 40 target locations (Gillespie, 2014; NIH, n.d.). The Vanguard Study suffered from a disorganized sampling strategy, and ineffective networking (Gillespie, 2014). Further, federal support waned as $30 million per year was cut from the initial congressional appropriations grants (Gillespie, 2014). Due to a problematic study design, the NCS was scrapped, which potentially wasted fifteen years of research and 1.3 billion dollars (Schmidt, 2015).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has constructed a page titled “Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism” (CDC, n.d.). They open their discussion by defining autism, which is framed as a simple neurologically diverse condition found in 1 in 68 children without any mention of possible treatment or recovery. The CDC then separates their discussion into two categories with presumably supportive peer-reviewed science. Let’s look at their research closely.